Many motorists aware of the difficulties of the winter starting the engine. For to facilitate this task, the industry produces special combo charger with extra starting function. Such charging-pad devices, usually when starting the engine are connected according to-parallel the battery pack.
The author of this article believes this method of starting a cold engine suboptimal to use and offers powerful triggering device, requiring the battery is connected.
As practice shows, start the engine with the car in the winter with charging-starting devices often have two stages: first to charge the battery for 10...20 s, and then share it with launcher to spin the crankshaft to the independent work of the engine. Acceptable frequency of rotation of the rotor starter was thus saved usually in for 3...5 s from the start, and then decreased to values, not promising start.
If the engine fails to start on the first attempt, the whole process has repeat again, and maybe more than once. All this is not only tedious, but and is associated with overheating of the windings of the starter and its deterioration with decreasing term service the battery.
To avoid many troubles will help powerful starting device capable on their own - without the help of a battery - spin frequency the rotation of the crankshaft of the engine. What is the load capacity should to provide a starting device?
In  indicate that the operating current IP.b battery in the starter mode is equal to IP.b = SB, where FR is the rated capacity in ampere-hours at normal temperature. Working voltage Up dvenadcatiletnej battery in this mode equals 10.5 In (1.75 V "Bank"). Hence the power PCT is supplied to the starter of the automobile car battery 6ST-60 capacity of 60 Ah,
PCT = 10,5-3-60 = 1890 Watts. An exception to said battery - 6ST-55, which working starteri current is equal to 255 and the power reaches PCT = 2677,5 watts.
In table summarizes information about the types and capacity of starter motors and batteries most common domestic cars .
Comparing the calculated power PCT starter with a nominal PCT nom, it's easy to see what PCT for cars more Rstem 2...2.5 times, and for cargo - all the more. As experience has shown, an overall power mains transformer a trigger device, designed for cars, not must be less than 3.5 kW.
As the magnetic circuits for the mains transformer such launchers the device I used a set of stator plates from the burnt asynchronous motor power of 5 kW. The cross section of the toroidal magnetic circuit SM = 27 cm2. The number of turns per volt
Therefore, grid winding must contain
nI = 1,11 -220=244 coil and the secondary on the output voltage 16 In
nII = 1,11-2-16=36 turns with a branch of the middle. For the primary winding is suitable insulated wire with a diameter of 3.6...6 mm2, and the secondary - 25...40 mm2.
The scheme of the launcher shown in the figure. The switch SA1 must be with a current capacity of at least 15 and have a thermal protective device (for example, AE-1031).
If you need to calculate the network step-down transformer with other parameters you can use the techniques outlined in [1,3].
Some tips for the manufacture of the transformer. The magnetic circuit of the motor freed from residues of the winding and from steel or aluminum shell (case). With a hammer and sharp chisel cut down the teeth of the magnetic circuit, the speakers inside. This operation is not difficult, you should only be careful to wear protective glasses and gloves.
Cover the magnetic layer of epoxy and wrapped with two layers fiberglass impregnated with resin. After solidification of the resin start winding. For the primary winding should be applied to the wire with high strength insulation - Sew-2, PATUL-2, PSR-2, HDPE and others If there is a single wire is needed section, the allowable wind in two, three and even four wires.
After the primary winding is to be wound, it is connected to the network, measure the idle current of the transformer. Current should not be more than 3.5 A. If it exceeds the specified boundary, it is necessary to demotte few turns it to condition was fulfilled. The connection wires must be mechanically strong and definitely soldered, better high-melting solder.
Cover the primary winding of two or three layers of fiberglass soaked the epoxy resin, and after solidification will proceed to the secondary winding the winding. When laying the coils use a wooden hammer which align and condense them, spread evenly along the length of the magnetic circuit.
For the secondary winding will fit any copper wire in a durable, heat resistant isolation, if only it can be wound on a magnetic core. In the extreme case it is permissible to use the wire in the rubber insulation, for example, ПВSW. Outside the coil must be winding fixing tape made of varnished cloth.
The finished transformer is advisable to set on a stand, made of boards (or welding of steel angled rolled). To attach the stand thick dural or steel plate is attached to the diodes and the minus output terminal in the form of a threaded rod M12. The same design the positive clamp is mounted on a solid insulating plate. To the stand and attach the switch SA1.
The stand can be equipped with handles for carrying the transformer alone or in alone. Please consider the entire design and fabrication process device, so that in any case none of its elements are not formed closed orbits around the magnetic core.
The wire that connects the starter to the starter of the car, please be treated less seriously. They should be as short as possible (in any case, no longer than 1.5 m), flexible, have good isolation and cross-section of copper not less than 100 mm2. All connections must be done by "the nut". Any carelessness here can be very costly - from burns of the face and hands before the fire. A detachable connection to the starter should perform powerful special clamps, excluding spontaneous separation. The wires are definitely clearly marked by polarity so as not to confuse them even in low light.
The mode of operation of the launcher - short his stay included under load usually does not exceed 10 s. After this, the device must to disconnect from the network and make sure there is no overheating of the magnetic circuit, windings, connectors, diodes and other elements. This is especially important on the first the pores of the operation of the device.
If power trigger device to use a three-phase network, it the power can be substantially increased, which will allow to run the powerful engines of trucks and tractors T-16, T-25, T-30, T-40, MTZ-80, etc., For the manufacture of such starting devices should be used ready transformers industrial manufacturing tspc-20A, TMOB-63, etc., connected to the mains voltage of 380 / 220V and having a secondary voltage 50 36... V.
Familiarity with this technique, you must start with an examination of the relevant literature.
In conclusion, a few General considerations.
Application for transformer toroidal magnetic core is absolutely not definitely. It is dictated only his best mass-dimensional parameters and what to buy "burnt" the motor is often quite easy. The power of such a toroidal transformer can be considered equal to the power motor, usually specified on the package.
Should strive so to calculate the cross section of the wire windings to the window the magnetic core was fully utilized. As practice shows, the share of the primary winding accounts for about 55 % of the window area, and secondary - 45 %.
The engine start battery and can not be disconnected from the starter. In this case, the starting device can be connected to the terminals of the battery. To to avoid overcharging, the device should be switched off immediately after starting of the motor.
The described device draws from a network of more power, its operation associated with the increased risk. Therefore, when using them follow the rules safety, do not trust the work with your device inexperienced and casual persons.
Author: S. Gurov, S. Ilyinka Rostov region.